مطالعه عددی مخاطرات تشعشعِ آتش استخری در مخازن بزرگ مقیاس ذخیره مشتقات نفتی در حالت بدون باد

نوع مقاله : مقاله پژوهشی


1 دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک، دانشگاه تربیت مدرس

2 دانشگاه تربیت مدرس، دانشکده مهندسی مکانیک

3 تربیت مدرس مهندسی مکانیک



مطالعه اثر تشعشع در پدیده آتش استخری مخازن سوخت، با توجه به خسارت جانی و مالی وارده به نفرات و تأسیسات یک مجتمع پالایشگاهی، بسیار حائز اهمیت است. ازاین‌رو در مطالعه حاضر، میزان تشعشع حاصل از آتش استخری سه سوخت متداول بنزین، کروزن و نفت خام در سه مخزن بزرگ ذخیره‌سازی سوخت در قطرهای 25، 50 و 75 متر و ارتفاع ثابت 15 متر به صورت عددی مطالعه شد. در این مطالعه از نرم‌افزار FDS استفاده شد که بر پایه رویکرد تفاضل محدود بوده که به روش صریح حل می‌شود. همچنین به‌عنوان نوآوری میزان تشعشع در ارتفاع 1/5، 3 و 5 متر جهت بررسی میزان خطرات وارده بر انسان و آتش ­نشانانِ حاضر در ماشین ­آلاتِ اطفای حریق و در ارتفاع 10 متر جهت بررسی اثر تشعشع بر سایر مخازن مجاور، در فواصل افقی گوناگون مطالعه شد. نتایج اخذشده نشان می‌دهد زمانی که سوخت بنزین باشد، بیشترین خطر تشعشع در فاصله مابین جداره مخزن تا 1/7 قطر مخزن بوده و همچنین حداقل فاصله مجاز جهت قرارگیری در محدوده ایمن در فاصله 2/6قطر مخزن است که با افزایش ارتفاع از سطح زمین میزان تشعشع نیز افزایش می‌یابد. همچنین مشاهده شد که تشعشع دریافتی در فاصله یکسان از مخازن با قطر مشابه، با توجه به نوع سوخت متفاوت بوده که با نرخ آزادسازی حرارت ارتباط مستقیم دارد.



عنوان مقاله [English]

Numerical study of pool fire radiation hazards in large-scale petroleum derivatives storage tanks in windless condition

نویسندگان [English]

  • Ghassem Heidarinejad 1
  • Mohammadreza Eftekhari 2
  • Mohammad Safarzadeh 2
  • Mohammad Zabetian Targhi 3
1 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University
2 Faculty of Mechanical Engineering. Tarbiat Modares University
3 Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran
چکیده [English]

The study of the radiation effects of the pool fire is significant considering the life and financial damages to individuals and facilities of a refinery complex. Therefore, in the present study, the radiation resulting from a pool fire of three common fuels, gasoline, kerosene, and crude oil, in three large fuel storage tanks with diameters of 25, 50, and 75 meters and a fixed height of 15 meters was studied numerically. In this study, FDS software was used, which is based on the finite difference approach with an explicit time discretization. As an innovation, the amount of radiation at a height of 1.5, 3, and 5 meters were studied in order to investigate the level of dangers to humans and firefighters of fire extinguishing machines, and at a height of 10 meters to investigate the effect of radiation on other nearby tanks, at different horizontal distances. The results indicate that when the fuel is gasoline, the highest radiation risk is between the tank wall and 1.7 times the tank diameter, and the minimum allowable distance for the safe zone is 2.6 times the tank diameter, which increases with increasing height above ground level. It was also observed that the radiation received at the same distance from tanks with similar diameters differed depending on the fuel, which has a direct relationship with the heat release rate.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • Radiation hazards
  • Pool fire
  • Computational fluid dynamics
  • Fuel storage tanks
  • FDS software
[1]  Y. Chen, J. Fang, X. Zhang, Y. Miao, Y. Lin, R. Tu, and L. Hu, “Pool fire dynamics: Principles, models and recent advances,” Prog. Energy Combust. Sci., vol. 95, p. 101070, Mar 2023.
[2]  Y. Guo, G. Xiao, L. Wang, C. Chen, H. Deng, H. Mi, C. Tu, and Y. Li, “Pool fire burning characteristics and risks under wind-free conditions: State-of-the-art,” Fire Saf. J., p. 103755, Feb 2023.
[3]  E. Wami, W. Onunwor, O. Chisa, and D. Jimmy, “Design of a Floating Roof Crude Oil Storage Tank of 100,000 BPD Capacity and Prototype Fabrication,” J. Sci. Eng. Res., vol. 4, no. 8, pp. 318–329, Sep 2017.
[4]  J. Sjöström, F. Amon, G. Appel, and H. Persson, “Thermal exposure from large scale ethanol fuel pool fires,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 78, pp. 229–237, Nov 2015.
[5]  M. J. Jafari, M. Pouyakian, A. Khanteymoori, and S. M. Hanifi, “Development of a framework for dynamic risk assessment of environmental impacts in chemicals warehouse using CFD-BN,” Int. J. Environ. Sci. Technol., pp. 1–16, Oct 2021.
[6]  S. N. Espinosa, R. C. Jaca, and L. A. Godoy, “Thermal effects of fire on a nearby fuel storage tank,” J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., vol. 62, p. 103990, Nov 2019.
[7]  A. Pourkeramat, A. Daneshmehr, S. Jalili, and K. Aminfar, “Investigation of wind and smoke concentration effects on thermal instability of cylindrical tanks with fixed roof subjected to an adjacent fire,” Thin-Walled Struct., vol. 160, p. 107384, Mar 2021.
[8]  O. Ahmadi, S. B. Mortazavi, H. Pasdarshahri, and H. A. Mohabadi, “Consequence analysis of large-scale pool fire in oil storage terminal based on computational fluid dynamic (CFD),” Process Saf. Environ. Prot., vol. 123, pp. 379–389, Mar 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2019.01.006.
[9]  O. Ahmadi, S. Bagher, and H. Pasdarshahri, “Modeling of boilover phenomenon consequences : Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and empirical correlations Modeling of boilover phenomenon consequences : Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and empirical correlations,” Process Saf. Environ. Prot., vol. 129, pp. 25–39, Sep 2019, doi: 10.1016/j.psep.2019.05.045.
[10] A. A. Malik, M. S. Nasif, U. Arshad, A. A. Mokhtar, M. Z. M. Tohir, and R. Al-Waked, “Predictive Modelling of Wind-Influenced Dynamic Fire Spread Probability in Tank Farm Due to Domino Effect by Integrating Numerical Simulation with ANN,” Fire, vol. 6, no. 3, Feb 2023. doi: 10.3390/fire6030085.
[11] B. Sun, K. Guo, and V. K. Pareek, “Dynamic simulation of hazard analysis of radiations from LNG pool fire,” J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., vol. 35, pp. 200–210, May 2015, doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2015.04.010.
[12] S. Vasanth, S. M. Tauseef, T. Abbasi, and S. A. Abbasi, “Simulation of multiple pool fires involving two different fuels,” J. Loss Prev. Process Ind., vol. 48, pp. 289–296, Jul 2017, doi: 10.1016/j.jlp.2017.04.031.
[13] M. Zhang, W. Song, J. Wang, and Z. Chen, “Accident consequence simulation analysis of pool fire in fire dike,” Procedia Eng., vol. 84, pp. 565–577, Jan 2014, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2014.10.469.
[14] M. Su, L. Wei, S. Zhou, G. Yang, R. Wang, Y. Duo, S. Chen, M. Sun, J. Li, and X. Kong, “Study on dynamic probability and quantitative risk calculation method of domino accident in pool fire in chemical storage tank area,” Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health, vol. 19, no. 24, p. 16483, Dec 2022.
[15] G. Yeoh and K. Yuen, “Computational Fluid Dynamics in Fire Engineering,” Comput. Fluid Dyn. Fire Eng., Jan 2009, doi: 10.1016/B978-0-7506-8589-4.X0001-4.
[16] G. Heidarinejad, H. Tajaddod, and M. Safarzadeh, “Numerical study of the effect of the water mist nozzle location on fire extinguishing system in shielded fire,” Fuel Combust., vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 1–19, Jun 2023. (in persian)
[17] M. Safarzadeh, G. Heidarinejad, and H. Pasdarshahri, “A study on turbulence-combustion interaction and sub-grid scale model in the simulation of methane pool fire using LES,” Sci. Iran., vol. 28, no. 4, pp. 2133–2149, Aug 2021. (in persian)
[18] M. Safarzadeh, G. Heidarinejad, and H. Pasdarshahri, “Accuracy of three different versions of flamelet-generated manifold with/without radiation coupling in simulation of pool fire,” J. Brazilian Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1–16, May 2022, doi: 10.1007/s40430-022-03519-6.
[19] H. Pasdarshahri, G. Heidarinejad, and K. Mazaheri, “Development of compatible sub-grid scale model of les in numerical simulation of compartment fires,” Thesis, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, Iran, May 2013. (in persian)
[20] K. McGrattan, S. Hostikka, R. McDermott, J. Floyd, C. Weinschenk, and K. Overhold, “Sixth Edition Fire Dynamics Simulator User ’s Guide (FDS),” NIST Special Publication 1019, vol. Sixth Edit. p. 402, Apr 2023.
[21] G. Maragkos and B. Merci, “Large Eddy Simulations of CH4 Fire Plumes,” Flow, Turbul. Combust., vol. 99, no. 1, pp. 239–278, Jan 2017, doi: 10.1007/s10494-017-9803-4.
[22] K. McGrattan, S. Hostikka, R. McDermott, J. Floyd, C. Weinschenk, and K. Overholt, “Sixth Edition Fire Dynamics Simulator Technical Reference Guide Volume 1 : Mathematical Model,” vol. 1, pp. 1–147, Apr 2023.
[23] G. Heidarinejad and E. Mousavi, “Numerical simulatoin of poolfire suppression using water mist systeminvestigating nozzle parameter effects,” Modares Mech. Eng., vol. 17, no. 2, pp. 350–358, Mar 2017. (in persian)
[24] H. Koseki, M. Kokkala, and G. W. Mulholland, “Experimental study of boilover in crude oil fires,” Fire Safety Science: Proceedings of the Third International Symposium. pp. 865–874, 2006. doi: 10.4324/9780203973493.
[25] Y. Iwata, H. Koseki, M. L. Janssens, and T. Takahashi, “Combustion characteristics of crude oils,” Fire Mater., vol. 25, no. 1, pp. 1–7, Oct 2000, doi: 10.1002/1099-1018(200101/02)25:1<1::AID-FAM751>3.0.CO;2-V.
[26] M. J. Hurley,  SFPE handbook of fire protection engineering. Springer, 2015.
[27] H. Koseki, “Combustion properties of large liquid pool fires,” Fire Technol., vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 241–255, Aug 1989, doi: 10.1007/BF01039781.
[28] J. Lee, “Numerical analysis on the rapid fire suppression using a water mist nozzle in a fire compartment with a door opening,” Nucl. Eng. Technol., vol. 51, no. 2, pp. 410–423, Oct 2018, doi: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.net.2018.10.026.
[29] C. S. Fernandes, G. C. Fraga, F. H. R. França, and F. R. Centeno, “Radiative transfer calculations in fire simulations: An assessment of different gray gas models using the software FDS,” Fire Saf. J., vol. 120, p. 103103, Mar 2021.
[30] H. Koseki and G. W. Mulholland, “The effect of diameter on the burning of crude oil pool fires,” Fire Technol., vol. 27, pp. 54–65, Feb 1991.
[31] V. Cozzani, G. Gubinelli, G. Antonioni, G. Spadoni, and S. Zanelli, “The assessment of risk caused by domino effect in quantitative area risk analysis,” Journal of Hazardous Materials, vol. 127, no. 1–3. pp. 14–30, Aug 2005. doi: 10.1016/j.jhazmat.2005.07.003.