W. N. M. W. Ghazali, R. Mamat, H. H. Masjuki, and G. Najafi, "Effects of biodiesel from different feedstocks on engine performance and emissions: A review," Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 51, pp. 585-602, 2015.
 M. Wu and S. Yang, "Combustion characteristics of multi-component cedar bio-oil/kerosene droplet," Energy, vol. 113, pp. 788-795, 2016.
 N. Banapurmath, W. M. Budzianowski, Y. Basavarajappa, R. Hosmath, V. Yaliwal, and P. Tewari, "Effects of compression ratio, swirl augmentation techniques and ethanol addition on the combustion of CNG–biodiesel in a dual-fuel engine," International Journal of Sustainable Engineering, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 55-70, 2014.
 M. Morales, G. Aroca, R. Rubilar, E. Acuna, B. Mola-Yudego, and S. González-García, "Cradle-to-gate life cycle assessment of Eucalyptus globulus short rotation plantations in Chile," Journal of Cleaner Production, vol. 99, pp. 239-249, 2015.
 R. Vigneswaran, K. Annamalai, B. Dhinesh, and R. Krishnamoorthy, "Experimental investigation of unmodified diesel engine performance, combustion and emission with multipurpose additive along with water-in-diesel emulsion fuel," Energy Conversion Management, vol. 172, pp. 370-380, 2018.
 A. Sharma, N. Kumar, V. Vibhanshu, and A. Deep, "Emission studies on a VCR engine using stable diesel water emulsion," SAE Technical Paper0148-7191, 2013.
 S. F. Ardabili, B. Najafi, M. Aghbashlo, Z. Khounani, and M. Tabatabaei, "Performance and emission analysis of a dual-fuel engine operating on high natural gas substitution rates ignited by aqueous carbon nanoparticles-laden diesel/biodiesel emulsions," Fuel, vol. 294, p. 120246, 2021.
 A. J. E. S. Demirbaş, Part A: Recovery, Utilization, and E. Effects, "Biodegradability of biodiesel and petrodiesel fuels," vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 169-174, 2008.
 A. T. Hoang, "Combustion behavior, performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine fuelled with biodiesel containing cerium oxide nanoparticles: A review," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 218, p. 106840, 2021.
 A. T. Hoang, "Prediction of the density and viscosity of biodiesel and the influence of biodiesel properties on a diesel engine fuel supply system," Journal of Marine Engineering Technology, vol. 20, no. 5, pp. 299-311, 2021.
 S. Faizollahzadeh Ardabili, B. Najafi, and S. Shamshirband, "Fuzzy logic method for the prediction of cetane number using carbon number, double bounds, iodic, and saponification values of biodiesel fuels," Environmental Progress Sustainable Energy, vol. 38, no. 2, pp. 584-599, 2019.
 D. Balasubramanian, A. T. Hoang, I. P. Venugopal, A. Shanmugam, J. Gao, and T. Wongwuttanasatian, "Numerical and experimental evaluation on the pooled effect of waste cooking oil biodiesel/diesel blends and exhaust gas recirculation in a twin-cylinder diesel engine," Fuel, vol. 287, p. 119815, 2021.
 Y. Devarajan, D. B. Munuswamy, B. Nagappan, and A. K. Pandian, "Performance, combustion and emission analysis of mustard oil biodiesel and octanol blends in diesel engine," Heat Mass Transfer, vol. 54, no. 6, pp. 1803-1811, 2018.
 T. Boningari and P. G. Smirniotis, "Impact of nitrogen oxides on the environment and human health: Mn-based materials for the NOx abatement," Current Opinion in Chemical Engineering, vol. 13, pp. 133-141, 2016.
 T. Shaafi and R. Velraj, "Influence of alumina nanoparticles, ethanol and isopropanol blend as additive with diesel–soybean biodiesel blend fuel: Combustion, engine performance and emissions," Renewable Energy, vol. 80, pp. 655-663, 2015.
 S. Radhakrishnan, Y. Devarajan, A. Mahalingam, and B. Nagappan, "Emissions analysis on diesel engine fueled with palm oil biodiesel and pentanol blends," Journal of Oil Palm Research, vol. 29, no. 3, pp. 380-386, 2017.
 G. Labeckas, S. Slavinskas, and I. Kanapkienė, "The individual effects of cetane number, oxygen content or fuel properties on the ignition delay, combustion characteristics, and cyclic variation of a turbocharged CRDI diesel engine–Part 1," Energy Conversion Management, vol. 148, pp. 1003-1027, 2017.
 A. Prabhu, M. Venkata Ramanan, and J. Jayaprabakar, "Production, properties and engine characteristics of Jatropha biodiesel–a review," International Journal of Ambient Energy, vol. 42, no. 15, pp. 1810-1814, 2021.
 K. P. Rao and V. Reddi, "Parametric optimization for performance and emissions of DI diesel engine with Mahua biodiesel along with Diethyl ether as an additive," Biofuels, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 37-47, 2020.
 X. HeLin, H. BeiBei, Z. PengFei, and A. JIANG, "Combustion and emissions characteristics of a diesel engine fueled with blends of diesel and DMF," Chinese Science Bulletin, vol. 62, no. 30, pp. 3506-3513, 2017.
 K. Velmurugan and A. Sathiyagnanam, "Impact of antioxidants on NOx emissions from a mango seed biodiesel powered DI diesel engine," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 55, no. 1, pp. 715-722, 2016.
 J. P. Nuszkowski, The effects of fuel additives on diesel engine emissions during steady state and transient operation. West Virginia University, 2008.
 J. E. Dec, "A conceptual model of DL diesel combustion based on laser-sheet imaging," SAE transactions, pp. 1319-1348, 1997.
 H. Parikh, V. Prajapati, and K. Thakkar, "Performance evaluation and emission analysis of 4-S, IC engine using ethanol bio-diesel blended with diesel fuel," J Int J Res Eng Technol, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 465-9, 2013.
 J. Guilera, R. Bringué, E. Ramírez, M. Iborra, and J. Tejero, "Comparison between ethanol and diethyl carbonate as ethylating agents for ethyl octyl ether synthesis over acidic ion-exchange resins," Industrial engineering chemistry research, vol. 51, no. 50, pp. 16525-16530, 2012.
 N. Yilmaz, "Comparative analysis of biodiesel–ethanol–diesel and biodiesel–methanol–diesel blends in a diesel engine," Energy, vol. 40, no. 1, pp. 210-213, 2012.
 X. Shi et al., "Emission reduction potential of using ethanol–biodiesel–diesel fuel blend on a heavy-duty diesel engine," Atmospheric Environment, vol. 40, no. 14, pp. 2567-2574, 2006.
 O. Doğan, "The influence of n-butanol/diesel fuel blends utilization on a small diesel engine performance and emissions," Fuel, vol. 90, no. 7, pp. 2467-2472, 2011.
 D. Rakopoulos, C. Rakopoulos, E. Giakoumis, A. Dimaratos, and D. Kyritsis, "Effects of butanol–diesel fuel blends on the performance and emissions of a high-speed DI diesel engine," Energy conversion management, vol. 51, no. 10, pp. 1989-1997, 2010.
 W. Yang et al., "Emulsion fuel with novel nano-organic additives for diesel engine application," Fuel, vol. 104, pp. 726-731, 2013.
 K. Górski, W. Lotko, and M. Swat, "Particulate matter emission from diesel engine fuelled with blends of diesel oil and ethyl tert-butyl ether," Archiwum Motoryzacji, pp. 119-126, 2010.
 S. Gaïl et al., "A wide-ranging kinetic modeling study of methyl butanoate combustion," Proceedings of the Combustion Institute, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 305-311, 2007.
 Y. Wang and Y. Liu, "An oxygenating additive for reducing the emission of diesel engine," in 2008 2nd International Conference on Bioinformatics and Biomedical Engineering, 2008, pp. 3931-3933: IEEE.
 B. H. Mehta, H. V. Mandalia, and A. B. Mistry, "A review on effect of oxygenated fuel additive on the performance and emission characteristics of diesel engine," in National conference on recent trends in engineering & technology, 2011, pp. 13-14.
 B. R. Kumar and S. Saravanan, "Partially premixed low temperature combustion using dimethyl carbonate (DMC) in a DI diesel engine for favorable smoke/NOx emissions," Fuel, vol. 180, pp. 396-406, 2016.
 D. B. Hulwan and S. V. Joshi, "Performance, emission and combustion characteristic of a multicylinder DI diesel engine running on diesel–ethanol–biodiesel blends of high ethanol content," Applied Energy, vol. 88, no. 12, pp. 5042-5055, 2011.
 S. Hill and L. D. Smoot, "Modeling of nitrogen oxides formation and destruction in combustion systems," Progress in energy combustion science, vol. 26, no. 4-6, pp. 417-458, 2000.
 E. Khalife, M. Tabatabaei, A. Demirbas, and M. Aghbashlo, "Impacts of additives on performance and emission characteristics of diesel engines during steady state operation," Progress in energy Combustion Science, vol. 59, pp. 32-78, 2017.
 E. Sukjit, J. M. Herreros, K. Dearn, R. García-Contreras, and A. Tsolakis, "The effect of the addition of individual methyl esters on the combustion and emissions of ethanol and butanol-diesel blends," Energy, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 364-374, 2012.
 C. Yu, S. Bari, and A. Ameen, "A comparison of combustion characteristics of waste cooking oil with diesel as fuel in a direct injection diesel engine," Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers, Part D: Journal of Automobile Engineering, vol. 216, no. 3, pp. 237-243, 2002.
 C. Swaminathan and J. Sarangan, "Performance and exhaust emission characteristics of a CI engine fueled with biodiesel (fish oil) with DEE as additive," biomass bioenergy, vol. 39, pp. 168-174, 2012.
 V. P. Ferreira, J. Martins, E. A. Torres, I. M. Pepe, and J. M. R. De Souza, "Performance and emissions analysis of additional ethanol injection on a diesel engine powered with A blend of diesel-biodiesel," Energy for Sustainable Development, vol. 17, no. 6, pp. 649-657, 2013.
 O. Armas, R. García-Contreras, and Á. Ramos, "Pollutant emissions from engine starting with ethanol and butanol diesel blends," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 100, pp. 63-72, 2012.
 L. Xing-Cai, Y. Jian-Guang, Z. Wu-Gao, and H. Zhen, "Effect of cetane number improver on heat release rate and emissions of high speed diesel engine fueled with ethanol–diesel blend fuel," Fuel, vol. 83, no. 14-15, pp. 2013-2020, 2004.
 N. Yilmaz and S. M. Davis, "Diesel blends with high concentrations of biodiesel and n-butanol: Effects on regulated pollutants and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons," Process Safety Environmental Protection, vol. 166, pp. 430-439, 2022.
 S. Yu, C. Cao, and W. Lv, "Combustion and emission characteristics investigation of a marine diesel engine powered by diesel/biodiesel/n‐butanol blends," Energy Science Engineering, vol. 10, no. 9, pp. 3317-3330, 2022.
 L. Razzaq et al., "Effect of biodiesel-dimethyl carbonate blends on engine performance, combustion and emission characteristics," Alexandria Engineering Journal, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 5111-5121, 2022.
 T. Ramesh, A. Sathiyagnanam, M. V. D. Poures, and P. Murugan, "A Comprehensive Study on the Effect of Dimethyl Carbonate Oxygenate and EGR on Emission Reduction, Combustion Analysis, and Performance Enhancement of a CRDI Diesel Engine Using a Blend of Diesel and Prosopis juliflora Biodiesel," International Journal of Chemical Engineering, vol. 2022, 2022.
 S. Faizollahzadeh Ardabili, B. Najafi, M. Alizamir, A. Mosavi, S. Shamshirband, and T. Rabczuk, "Using SVM-RSM and ELM-RSM approaches for optimizing the production process of methyl and ethyl esters," Energies, vol. 11, no. 11, p. 2889, 2018.
 B. Najafi, S. Faizollahzadeh Ardabili, A. Mosavi, S. Shamshirband, and T. J. E. Rabczuk, "An intelligent artificial neural network-response surface methodology method for accessing the optimum biodiesel and diesel fuel blending conditions in a diesel engine from the viewpoint of exergy and energy analysis," vol. 11, no. 4, p. 860, 2018.
 M. J. Pratas, S. V. Freitas, M. B. Oliveira, S. C. Monteiro, Á. S. Lima, and J. A. Coutinho, "Biodiesel density: experimental measurements and prediction models," Energy Fuels, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 2333-2340, 2011.
 B. Tesfa, F. Gu, R. Mishra, and A. Ball, "LHV predication models and LHV effect on the performance of CI engine running with biodiesel blends," Energy conversion management, vol. 71, pp. 217-226, 2013.
 P. S. Mehta and K. Anand, "Estimation of a lower heating value of vegetable oil and biodiesel fuel," Energy Fuels, vol. 23, no. 8, pp. 3893-3898, 2009.
 M. Gülüm and A. Bilgin, "Density, flash point and heating value variations of corn oil biodiesel–diesel fuel blends," Fuel Processing Technology, vol. 134, pp. 456-464, 2015.
 A. Álvarez, M. n. Lapuerta, and J. R. Agudelo, "Prediction of flash-point temperature of alcohol/biodiesel/diesel fuel blends," Industrial Engineering Chemistry Research, vol. 58, no. 16, pp. 6860-6869, 2019.
 L. F. R. Verduzco, "Density and viscosity of biodiesel as a function of temperature: Empirical models," Renewable Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 19, pp. 652-665, 2013.
 K. Krisnangkura, T. Yimsuwan, and R. Pairintra, "An empirical approach in predicting biodiesel viscosity at various temperatures," Fuel, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 107-113, 2006.
 K. Sivaramakrishnan and P. Ravikumar, "Determination of cetane number of biodiesel and its influence on physical properties," ARPN journal of engineering applied sciences, vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 205-211, 2012.
 C. Venkataraman and G. U. M. Rao, "Emission factors of carbon monoxide and size-resolved aerosols from biofuel combustion," Environmental science technology, vol. 35, no. 10, pp. 2100-2107, 2001.
 F. Payri, V. R. Bermúdez, B. Tormos, and W. G. Linares, "Hydrocarbon emissions speciation in diesel and biodiesel exhausts," Atmospheric Environment, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 1273-1279, 2009.