عنوان مقاله [English]
The tendency toward research on the production and application of renewable energy, such as biodiesel, to reduce greenhouse gases and emissions of fossil fuels, is one of the most important issues in the world policies which has been discussed. Dielectric properties (ε’, dielectric constant and ε", dielectric loss factor) of materials play a major role in the microwave design and process of biodiesel production. The purpose of this research is to investigate and evaluate the biodiesel's dielectric properties in a pilot-scale using microwave technology and the relationship between its various effective parameters. In this study, the effects of reaction time (1, 3 and 9 minutes), catalyst concentration (1, 1.5 and 2% of oil weight) and temperature changes (30, 45 and 60°C) were studied. The probe reflection system was used at a frequency of 2450 MHz to measure the dielectric properties. The results showed that, with increasing reaction time and decreasing temperature, the dielectric constant values increased, and by decreasing catalyst concentration, temperature and reaction time, the dielectric loss factor decreased.
14. M. Kouzua, A. Nakagaito and J. Hidaka, “Preesterification of FFA in plant oil transesterified into biodiesel with the help of solid acid catalysis of sulfonated cation-exchange resin,” Applied CatalysisA: General, 405, 2011, pp. 36- 44.
16. Y. Wang, F. Zhang, S. Xu, L. Yang, L. Dianqing, D. G. Evans and D. Xue, “Preparation of macrospherical magnesia-rich magnesium aluminate spinel catalysts for methanolysis of soybean oil,” Chem. Eng. Science, 63, 2008, pp. 4306-4312.
20. M. E. Borges and L. Diaz, “Recent developments on heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production by oil esterification and transesterification reactions: A review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 16, 2012, pp. 2839-2849.
21. A. P. Singh Chouhan and A. K. Sarma, “Modern heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production: A comprehensive review,” Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, 15, 2011, pp. 4378-4399.
23. P. Nair, B. Singh, S. N. Upadhyay and Y. C. Sharma, “Synthesis of biodiesel from low FFA waste frying oil using calcium oxide derived from Mereterix mereterix as a heterogeneous catalyst,” Journal of Cleaner Production, 29, 2012, pp. 82-90.
24. P. C. Lew, K. Hemanathan and P. Z. Vasudeo, “Enzymatic biodiesel: Challenges and opportunities,” Applied Energy, 119, 2014, pp. 497-520.
25. M. Hajar, S. Shokrollahzadeh, F. Vahabzadeh and A. Monazzami, “Solvent-free methanolysis of canola oil in a packed-bed reactor with use of Novozym 435 plus loofa,” Enzyme and Microbial Tech., 45, 2009, pp. 188-194.
26. D. P. Muley and D. Boldor, “Investigation of Microwave Dielectric Properties of Biodiesel Components,” Bioresource Technology, 127, 2013, pp. 165-174.
27. R. M. Balabin, E. I. Lomakina and R. Z. Safieva, “Artificial Neural Network (ANN) Approach to Biodiesel Analysis: Analysis of Biodiesel Density, Kinematic Viscosity, Methanol and Water Contents usingNear Infrared (NIR) Spectroscopy,” Fuel, 90, 2011, pp. 2007-2015.
28.M. E. Tat and J. H. Van Gerpen, “Biodiesel Blend Detection with a Fuel Composition Sensor,”Applied Engineering Agriculture, 19, 2003, pp. 125-131.
29. A. Biswas, A. Adhvaryu, D. G. Stevenson, B. K. Sharma,J. L. Willet and S. Z. Erhan, “Microwave Irradiation Effects on the Structure, Viscosity, Thermal Properties and Lubricity of Soybean oil,” Industrial Crops and Products, 25, 2007, pp. 1-7.
30.M. Zarein, Dielectric Constant Measuring of Potato using Microwave, MSc Thesis, Mechanical & Biosystems Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 2012. (In Persian)
31.S.O. Nelson, “Dielectric Spectroscopy in Agriculture,” Journal of Non-Crystalline Solids, 351, 2005, pp. 2940-2944.
32.S.O. Nelson, W. Guo and S. Trabelsi, “Investigation of Dielectric Sensing for Fruit Quality Determination,” IEEESensors Applications Symposium, Atlanta, USA, 2008.
33. J. Cheeke and N. Davis, Fundamentals and Applications of Ultrasonic Waves, Second Edition, Florida, CRC Press, 2002.
34.E. Fayyazi, Biodiesel Fuel Production using Ultrasonic System, MSc Thesis, Mechanical & Biosystems Engineering Department, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran, 2012. (In Persian)
35.M.S. Venkatesh and G.S.V. Raghavan, “An Overview of Dielectric Properties Measuring Techniques,” Canadian Biosystem Engineering, 47, 2005, pp. 15-30.