تولید سوخت سبز بیودیزل از روغن آفتابگردان با استفاده از نانوذرات K2O تثبیت شده بر روی بنتونیت به روش سونوشیمی

نوع مقاله: مقاله پژوهشی

نویسندگان

1 گروه مهندسی شیمی، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنند، ایران

2 گروه مهندسی شیمی، دانشکده مهندسی، دانشگاه کردستان، سنندج، ایران

چکیده

هدف از این پژوهش تثبیت نانوذرات K2O بر خاک رس بنتونیت و ارزیابی و مقایسه عملکرد آن با نانوذرات K2O خالص برای بررسی نقش پایه معدنی در تولید سوخت سبز بیودیزل است. بدین­ منظور، نانوکاتالیزور هتروژنی K2O/Bentonite با بارگذاری 30% وزنی هیدروکسید پتاسیم بر پایه بنتونیت با استفاده از روش امواج فراصوت شیمیایی تهیه و در واکنش تبادل استری روغن آفتاب­گردان استفاده شد و نتیجه آن با کاتالیزور هموژن KOH و نانوذرات K2O خالص به ­ترتیب برای ارزیابی عملکرد و بررسی اثر تثبیت مقایسه شد. خصوصیات فیزیکی و شیمیایی نانوکاتالیزور کامپوزیتی تهیه ­شده با استفاده از آزمون­هایXRD ، FESEM،EDX ، BET و FTIR مورد بررسی قرار گرفت. نتایج حاصل از آزمون­ های خصوصیت ­سنجی حاکی از تهیه موفقیت­آمیز نمونه K2O/Bentonite و خواص سطحی و ساختاری مناسب این نمونه به­ منظور          به­ کارگیری در فرایند تبادل استری روغن است. آزمون XRD تشکیل فاز کریستالی K2O در نمونه تهیه ­شده را تایید کرد. تصاویر FESEM پوشیده­ شدن سطح بنتونیت از وجود نانوذرات کوچک K2O با توزیع اندازه و پراکندگی یکنواخت را نشان داد. نتایج آزمون EDX مؤید حضور تمامی عناصر مورد استفاده و عدم وجود هر گونه ناخالصی در ساختار کاتالیزور بود. آزمون BET نشان داد که نانوکامپوزیت تهیه ­شده دارای سطح ویژه‌ مناسبی است. نتایج عملکرد راکتوری نمونه ­ها در شرایط نسبت مولی متانول به روغن 12:1، مقدار کاتالیزور wt.% 3، دمای واکنش °C65 و زمان انجام واکنش h 3 بیانگر کارایی قابل قبول نانوکامپوزیت تهیه­شده با بازده تولید 95/17% در مقایسه با نمونه­ های K2O خالص و KOH به­ ترتیب با بازده­ های تولید 80/57% و 76/62% بود. کارایی بهتر را می­توان به خواص سطحی و ساختاری بهبودیافته در نتیجه تثبیت ذرات فعال با به ­گارگیری انرژی فراصوت چون حفرات بزرگ، سطح ویژه نسبتاً بالا، شکل ظاهری یکنواخت، توزیع همگن ذرات پتاسیم، برهمکنش قوی ذرات پتاسیم با لایه­ های بنتونیت و نیز تشکیل گروه­ های Al-O-H نسبت داد. همچنین، ویژگی­ های بیودیزل تولیدشده، مانند چگالی، گرانروی، نقطه ابری­شدن، نقطه ریزش، عدد اسیدی و عدد ستان اندازه­ گیری، با استانداردها مقایسه شدند.

کلیدواژه‌ها

موضوعات


عنوان مقاله [English]

Production of Green Fuel Biodiesel from Sunflower Oil Using K2O Nanoparticles Sonochemically Immobilized over Bentonite

نویسندگان [English]

  • Kavan Ghavami 1
  • Farhad Rahmani 2
  • Faranak Akhlaghian 2
1 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
2 Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Kurdistan, Sanandaj, Iran
چکیده [English]

The aims of this study were to immobilize K2O nanoparticles over bentonite clay; and evaluate and compare its performance with that of bare K2O nanoparticles in order to study the role of mineral support in the biodiesel production. For this purpose, a heterogeneous K2O/Bentonite nanocatalyst was sonochemichally prepared by loading 30 wt.% potassium hydroxide over bentonite and used in the transesterification reaction of sunflower oil. The obtained result was compared with homogeneous KOH catalyst and bare K2O. The physico-chemical properties of synthesized composite were investigated using XRD, FESEM, EDX, BET and FTIR analyzes. The results of the characterization analysis indicate the successful synthesis of the synthesized sample and suitable surface and structural properties of this sample for use in the transesterification process. XRD analysis confirmed the formation of the crystalline phase of K2O in the synthesized sample. FESEM images showed that the surface of bentonite has been covered by small K2O nanoparticles with uniform size distribution and dispersion. The results of EDX analysis confirmed the presence of all the elements used and there was no impurity in the catalyst structure. The catalytic results of the samples in operating conditions of methanol to oil molar ratio of 12:1, catalyst amount of 3 wt.%, reaction temperature of 65 C and reaction time of 3 h indicate acceptable efficiency of synthesized nanocomposite with production yield of 95.17% compared with K2O and KOH samples which had 80.57% and 76.62% production efficiencies, respectively. Also, biodiesel properties, were measured and compared to standards.

کلیدواژه‌ها [English]

  • K2O/Bentonite
  • Sonochemistry Procedure
  • sunflower oil
  • Biodiesel
 
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