Ü. Ağbulut, S. Sarıdemir, and S. Albayrak, “Experimental investigation of combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a diesel engine fuelled with diesel–biodiesel–alcohol blends,” J. Brazilian Soc. Mech. Sci. Eng., vol. 41, no. 9, 2019.
 J. E. Tibaquirá, J. I. Huertas, S. Ospina, L. F. Quirama, and J. E. Niño, “The Effect of Using Ethanol-Gasoline Blends on the Mechanical, Energy and Environmental Performance of In-Use Vehicles,” Energies., vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 1–17, 2018.
 M. Balat and H. Balat, “Recent trends in global production and utilization of bio-ethanol fuel,” Appl. Energy., vol. 86, no. 11, pp. 2273–2282, 2009.
 M. Mohebbi, M. Reyhanian, V. Hosseini, M. F. Muhamad Said, and A. A. Aziz, “Performance and emissions of a reactivity controlled light-duty diesel engine fueled with n-butanol-diesel and gasoline,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 134, no. pp. 214–228, February 2018.
 K. Zhang and S. Batterman, “Near-road air pollutant concentrations of CO and PM2.5: A comparison of MOBILE6.2/CALINE4 and generalized additive models,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 44, no. 14, pp. 1740–1748, 2010.
 A. M. Liaquat, M. A. Kalam, H. H. Masjuki, and M. H. Jayed, “Potential emissions reduction in road transport sector using biofuel in developing countries,” Atmospheric Environment., vol. 44, no. 32. pp. 3869–3877, 2010.
 H. Sharudin, N. R. Abdullah, A. M. I. Mamat, N. H. Badrulhisam, and R. Mamat, “Application of Alcohol Fuel Properties in Spark Ignition Engine : A Review,” Jurnal Kejuruteraan., vol. 1, no. 7. pp. 37–47, 2019.
 A. Elfasakhany, “Engine performance evaluation and pollutant emissions analysis using ternary bio-ethanol–iso-butanol–gasoline blends in gasoline engines,” J. Clean. Prod., vol. 139, pp. 1057–1067, 2016.
 A. A. Yusuf and F. L. Inambao, “Progress in alcohol-gasoline blends and their effects on the performance and emissions in SI engines under different operating conditions,” International Journal of Ambient Energy., vol. 42, no. 4. pp. 465–481, 2021.
 P. Mukhopadhyay and R. Chakraborty, “Effects of Bioglycerol Based Fuel Additives on Diesel Fuel Property, Engine Performance and Emission Quality: A Review,” in Energy Procedia., vol. 79, pp. 671–676, 2015.
 H. Liu, Z. Wang, Y. Long, S. Xiang, J. Wang, and M. Fatouraie, “Comparative study on alcohol-gasoline and gasoline-alcohol Dual-Fuel Spark Ignition (DFSI) combustion for engine particle number (PN) reduction,” Fuel., vol. 159, pp. 250–258, 2015.
 M. K. Balki and C. Sayin, “The effect of compression ratio on the performance, emissions and combustion of an SI (spark ignition) engine fueled with pure ethanol, methanol and unleaded gasoline,” Energy., vol. 71, pp. 194–201, 2014.
 E. Alptekin, M. Canakci, A. N. Ozsezen, A. Turkcan, and H. Sanli, “Using waste animal fat based biodiesels-bioethanol-diesel fuel blends in a di diesel engine,” Fuel., vol. 157, pp. 245–254, 2015.
 H. H. Balla, S. Abdullah, E. A. J. Al-Mulla, W. M. F. W. Mahmood, R. Zulkifli, and K. Sopian, “Effect of Reynolds number on heat transfer and flow for multi-oxide nanofluids using numerical simulation,” Res. Chem. Intermed., vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 2197–2210, 2013.
 P. Sakthivel, K. A. Subramanian, and R. Mathai, “Experimental study on unregulated emission characteristics of a two-wheeler with ethanol-gasoline blends (E0 to E50),” Fuel., vol. 262, p. 116504, 2020.
 P. Sakthivel, K. A. Subramanian, and R. Mathai, “Comparative studies on combustion, performance and emission characteristics of a two-wheeler with gasoline and 30% ethanol-gasoline blend using chassis dynamometer,” Applied Thermal Engineering., vol. 146. pp. 726–737, 2019.
 D. J. Dorney, H. C. Flitan, D. E. Ashpis, and W. J. Solomon, “The effects of blade count on boundary layer development in a low-pressure turbine,” Int. J. Turbo Jet Engines., vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 1–13, 2001.
 P. Iodice and M. Cardone, “Ethanol/gasoline blends as alternative fuel in last generation spark-ignition engines: a review on CO and HC engine out emissions,” Energies., vol. 14, no. 13, p. 4034, 2021.
 M. Canakci, A. N. Ozsezen, E. Alptekin, and M. Eyidogan, “Impact of alcohol-gasoline fuel blends on the exhaust emission of an SI engine,” Renew. Energy., vol. 52, pp. 111–117, 2013.
 I. Gravalos, D. Moshou, T. Gialamas, P. Xyradakis, D. Kateris, and Z. Tsiropoulos, “Emissions characteristics of spark ignition engine operating on lower-higher molecular mass alcohol blended gasoline fuels,” Renewable Energy., vol. 50. pp. 27–32, 2013.
 S. Hosseinpour, M. Aghbashlo, M. Tabatabaei, and E. Khalife, “Exact estimation of biodiesel cetane number (CN) from its fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) profile using partial least square (PLS) adapted by artificial neural network (ANN),” Energy Convers., Manag., vol. 124, pp. 389–398, 2016.
 M. Hajjari, M. Tabatabaei, M. Aghbashlo, and H. Ghanavati, “A review on the prospects of sustainable biodiesel production: A global scenario with an emphasis on waste-oil biodiesel utilization,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 72, pp. 445–464, 2017.
 M. Aghbashlo, S. Hosseinpour, M. Tabatabaei, and A. Dadak, “Fuzzy modeling and optimization of the synthesis of biodiesel from waste cooking oil (WCO) by a low power, high frequency piezo-ultrasonic reactor,” Energy., vol. 132, 2017.
 M. Aghbashlo, M. Tabatabaei, H. Rastegari, H. S. Ghaziaskar, and T. Roodbar Shojaei, “On the exergetic optimization of solketalacetin synthesis as a green fuel additive through ketalization of glycerol-derived monoacetin with acetone,” Renew. Energy., vol. 126, pp. 242–253, 2018.
 M. R. Nanda, Y. Zhang, Z. Yuan, W. Qin, H. S. Ghaziaskar, and C. C. Xu, “Catalytic conversion of glycerol for sustainable production of solketal as a fuel additive: A review,” Renew. Sustain. Energy Rev., vol. 56, pp. 1022–1031, 2016.
 E. Alptekin and M. Canakci, “Performance and emission characteristics of solketal-gasoline fuel blend in a vehicle with spark ignition engine,” Appl. Therm. Eng., vol. 124, pp. 504–509, 2017.
 H. S. Ghaziaskar and Y. M. Gorji, “Synthesis of solketalacetin as a green fuel additive via ketalization of monoacetin with acetone using silica benzyl sulfonic acid as catalyst,” Biofuel Res. J., vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 753–758, 2018.
 G. Najafi, B. Ghobadian, T. Tavakoli, D. R. Buttsworth, T. F. Yusaf, and M. Faizollahnejad, “Performance and exhaust emissions of a gasoline engine with ethanol blended gasoline fuels using artificial neural network,” Appl. Energy., vol. 86, no. 5, pp. 630–639, 2009.
 J. B. Heywood, Internal combustion engine fundamentals. McGraw-Hill Education, 2018.
 M. V. Rodionova et al., “Biofuel production: Challenges and opportunities,” Int. J. Hydrogen Energy., vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 8450–8461, 2017.
 M. K. Mohammed, H. H. Balla, Z. M. H. Al-Dulaimi, Z. S. Kareem, and M. S. Al-Zuhairy, “Effect of ethanol-gasoline blends on SI engine performance and emissions,” Case Stud. Therm. Eng., vol. 25, no. p. 100891,February 2021.
 A. A. Yusuf, F. L. Inambao, and A. A. Farooq, “Impact of n-butanol-gasoline-hydrogen blends on combustion reactivity, performance and tailpipe emissions using TGDI engine parameters variation,” Sustain. Energy Technol. Assessments., vol. 40, no. p. 100773, June 2020.
 A. Elfasakhany, “Investigations on the effects of ethanol–methanol–gasoline blends in a spark-ignition engine: Performance and emissions analysis,” Engineering Science and Technology, an International Journal., vol. 18, no. 4. pp. 713–719, 2015.
 A. K. Agarwal, H. Karare, and A. Dhar, “Combustion, performance, emissions and particulate characterization of a methanol-gasoline blend (gasohol) fuelled medium duty spark ignition transportation engine,” Fuel Process. Technol., vol. 121, pp. 16–24, 2014.
 W.-D. Hsieh, R.-H. Chen, T.-L. Wu, and T.-H. Lin, “Engine performance and pollutant emission of an SI engine using ethanol–gasoline blended fuels,” Atmos. Environ., vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 403–410, 2002.
 P. Mohammadi, A. M. Nikbakht, M. Tabatabaei, K. Farhadi, A. Mohebbi, and M. Khatami far, “Experimental investigation of performance and emission characteristics of DI diesel engine fueled with polymer waste dissolved in biodiesel-blended diesel fuel,” Energy., vol. 46, no. 1, pp. 596–605, 2012.
 P. Iodice, A. Amoresano, and G. Langella, “A review on the effects of ethanol/gasoline fuel blends on NOX emissions in spark-ignition engines,” Biofuel Res. J., vol. 8, no. 4, pp. 1465–1480, 2021.